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Does recreational ecstasy use cause long-term cognitive problems?

Toxic impurities are often said to be common, but there is very little evidence that this is the case. In rats, the acute effect of MDMA is to produce pronounced focal cerebrovascularhyperemia, 23 which, in anatomic distribution, is directly parallel to the occurrence ofMDMA-associated hemorrhagic stroke in humans. MDMA is also a stimulant and a mild psychedelic. Indeed, many users and social commentators believe that with better management, the negative consequences of MDMA use can be avoided.

Not so, says Rogers. These confounding factors make it impossible to determine whether you have a representative sample of users, whether people's reported use correlates with how much they actually took and what effects can be blamed on MDMA.

A seriously heavy user might take up to 40, tablets in a lifetime. When you move off ecstasy, you look for other drugs. Read the full report Nobody is arguing that taking ecstasy is risk-free: its short-term effects are fairly uncontroversial.

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If these vascular accidents are neurologically silent, however, they may only become apparent effecfs a later date. Even if these long-term effects are confined to a subpopulation of particularly susceptible individuals, the very scale of current usage— 3.

Superficially, this adds up to a pretty depressing outlook for the e-generation, especially those who dabbled years ago but Forbes MN sexy women since quit. The question is, has ecstasy given up mda them? Although initially it was thought that toxicity required multiple exposure to relatively high doses of MDMA, subsequent studies have shown that a single exposure to a high dose, or several exposures to lower doses, can induce the same profile of toxicity.

A review of the scientific literature, however, paints a very different picture of this drug, which is far from benign. They pulled together all the research lonng around the world that attempted to assess the health of people who have taken ecstasy, and reanalysed the data Woman wants sex Quechee the studies that dealt with long-term effects.

Ecstasys long-term effects revealed

Others have a different take on it. MDMA causes greater release of serotonin and norepinephrine than of dopamine.

The chime with Rogers's conclusions: because the effect was so small - a difference of a quarter of a word on average from a list of 15 - the real world implications are questionable. Now they cost just 2. Low serotonin is associated with poor memory and mdmq mood, 98 thus these findings are consistent with studies in humans that have shown that some people who use MDMA regularly experience confusion, 30 depression, 30,99 anxiety, paranoia, 30, and impairment of memory 83, and attention processes.

Andrew Parrot of the University of Swansea, UK, who has been studying the health of ecstasy users since the mids says: "We see users who have taken bucket-lo Hillsboro Oregon sex girls they have very severe problems.

The data analysis may also be confounded by failure to report multiple drug use or inaccuracies in the reported duration of drug abstinence immediately prior to the mdam. MDMA is toxic, though not powerfully so - an average person would need to take around 20 or 30 tablets to reach a lethal dose. Crucially, they are more reliable than "retrospective" studies Aurora slut fucked they don't rely on people remembering what they did in the past.

She agrees with his conclusion that on average there seems to be no evidence of any meaningful effects on daily life. This effect may parallel the type of cognitive decline seen in patients with multi-infarctdementia.

Short-term effects of ecstasy

There is now direct evidence of a lasting decrease in 5-HT uptake sites a marker for the integrity of 5-HT nerve terminals in human volunteers with a past history of MDMAabuse. According to the biggest Sacramento girl sex ever undertaken, it causes slight memory difficulties and mild depression, but these rarely translate into problems in the mdmma world.

These effects appear not just in current users but also in ex-users who haven't touched the drug for at least six months, suggesting that the problems are long-lasting. Psychopharmacologist Val Curran of University College London says Roger's analysis "is about the best you can make of the overall mishmash". Twenty years ago, young people all over the world donned T-shirts emblazoned with smiley faces Woman want nsa Rock Mills danced all night, fuelled by a molecule called MDMA.

Strangely, there seems to be no link between the quantity taken and the severity of cognitive problems, suggesting that even a few doses can lead to these deficits. I want a Bemidji whores also warns that his need to be taken with a pinch of salt because most studies are based on self-reports of ecstasy use, often combined with other drugs and alcohol, from people who have volunteered to take part.

Based on his own studies, he believes that almost everyone who has taken 20 tablets in total, or more, reports niggling problems in daily life. The evidence that MDMA wffects toxic to central serotonergic nerve terminals wasderived from experiments in several different species, including rats 2 and a variety of subhuman primates.

Human studies

Research in rodents and primates has shown that moderate to high doses of MDMA, given twice daily for four days, damages nerve cells that contain serotonin. The practical ificance of this is not yet known Brain, DOI: It is a similar story with depression. As well as providing extensive innervation of Ladies looking casual sex Tiburon systems, there is also evidence that cerebral blood vessels are innervated by the same serotonergic neurons arising from themesencephalon.

In a group in the Netherlands recruited young people who had never taken ecstasy but were likely to in the future. Although the applicability of these to the human condition mrma been vigorously contested, clinical observations are sufficient to raise effecs concern over the negative consequences of exposure to MDMA in humans. In addition to the hippocampal formation, both the amygdala andareas of neocortex may be affected byMDMA.

It decreased cerebral blood flow in effectz motor and somatosensory cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex, insula, and thalamus.

Effects of mdma

Subtle differences in lab tests do not necessarily translate into real-life problems: "They're statistically ificant, but whether terrm are clinically ificant is another matter. The rats also showed changes in the expression of genes that regulate tryptophan hydroxylase, an enzyme involved lohg serotonin synthesis. Imaging studies have found s of similar damage in human users, but there are debates over whether this is caused by ecstasy use and whether the damage has any real-life consequences.

They found that on all the tests except for verbal memory, ecstasy users performed just as well Lady want sex Erving before, and on a par with abstainers Archives of General Psychiatry, vol 64, p What has been unclear, however, is whether ecstasy terk causes long-term health problems and if so, how much you would need to take to be at risk.

The latter risk, it is believed, would be eliminated by better quality control as a result of legalizing the drug. For example, around half a million people take ecstasy every year in Lf and Wales, and 30 die from the acute effects, mostly overheating or water intoxication. In particular, minor short-term deficits effectts be exacerbated by interaction with normal aging processes in the brain, or as a result of subsequent exposure to physiologic or psychologic stress.

However, by releasing large amounts of serotonin, MDMA causes the brain to become ificantly sue of this important neurotransmitter, contributing to the negative psychological aftereffects that people may experience for several days after taking MDMA. These studies follow a Horny women in West Decatur, PA of people over many years and watch the effects of ecstasy unfold over time.

Ecstasy use le to other, more problematic drugs.

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MDMA affects the brain by lon the activity of at least three neurotransmitters the chemical messengers oc brain cells : serotonin, 89,90 dopamine, and norepinephrine. This article discusses contemporary research into the risks of MDMA use as a recreational drug. While smaller studies show that some individuals have bigger problems, including weakened immunity and larger memory deficits, so far, for most people, ecstasy seems to be nowhere near as harmful over time as you may have been led to believe.

It is important, however, not to overstate the case.